The GII also publishes a more specific ranking of innovation clusters across the world, based on three criteria: quality of universities, internationalization of local inventions and number of citations. For the first time, Paris is included in the ranking and reaches the 9th place; this confirms the really good momentum on innovation in Parisian companies, labs and universities. The Ecole Normale Supérieure, the Ecole Polytechnique and the Pierre et Marie Curie University are said to be leaders in this cluster’s growth.
France’s description in this years’ GII emphasizes the fact that France is over-performing in innovation compared to its level of development. This is what allowed the country to go from 18th to 16th place in three years.